Power and Influence: Introduction to International Relations
Brooks-Cole Publishing Co. 1985

There was a time in centuries past when the exercise of power – the effective imposition of the will of one government over another – was the prevailing norm in international relations. In 1985 Kousoulas wrote this book to point out that in the multi-polar world that was emerging, the exercise of power would be less common and instead even major and powerful countries would soon have to rely much more on influence -- namely, the effort to persuade, bargain, compromise, cajole, or offer inducements -- to achieve political or economic ends in their relations with other counties. Less than five years later, with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the seeming bi-polarity, the exercise of influence became the prevailing norm in the relations among sovereign states.

In the Preface, Kousoulas had written: “There are signs that the international environment has undergone major changes in the last 40 years and that the structural transformations will expand, accelerate, and deepen as we move into the twenty first century. There has been a reluctant and uneven shift from the power approach that has traditionally dominated international relations to a transactional approach, which relies primarily on bargaining and persuasion.”